The global gold nanoparticles market was valued at USD 646 million in 2017 and is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 10.2 % from 2018 to 2026. Inherent properties of god nanoparticles such as small size, non-toxicity, and high surface area have increased their application portfolio in applications including therapeutics, targeted drug delivery, imaging as well as diagnosis, thus catering to a growth in the overall market size. As compared to their bulk counterparts, gold nanoparticles have enhanced physical as well as chemical properties. This is due to their reactive surface area, as well as specific electron structure. These particles are proving promising for usage in various functions such as therapeutic as well as imaging functions due to their stability, high loading capacity, as well as ability to modify. Such factors are proving beneficial for market growth.
Almost all the properties of a metal nanoparticle are influenced by their shape and size. Recent scientific development has been focused on controlling the shape as well as size in order to influence the magnetic, electric, catalytic as well as the optical properties. Such research carried out in customization of nanoparticles including gold nanoparticles has benefitted the market demand by opening new avenues of applications.
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Gold nanoparticles exhibit a variety of size ranges. They are different from their bulk counterparts. Bulk gold is inert in nature while its nanoparticle variant reportedly displays anti-oxidant properties. The assembly combined with the interactions of the assembly of gold nanoparticles plays a vital role in the overall properties. These particles also display varying shapes such as multiple twines, irregular, octahedral, nanoprisms, nanorods, decahedral and octahedral among others. Different shapes of these particles exhibit different properties. Enhanced optical properties are displayed by the triangular shaped ones, in comparison with other shapes such as spherical. One of the important bio-synthesis technique used to obtain purified gold particle and also to study their medical uses is the single active substance from plant extract.
Radiation enhancers, used in used in radiation medicine utilize these nano metals. They enable the efficient and targeted delivery of the drug to the tumor location thus providing therapeutic enhancement. They are widely used as platform nanomaterial for a widespread application ranging from cell labeling, killing of cells, ultrasensitive detection, as well as drug delivery. Gold nanorods are gaining traction in applications such as gene delivery, photo thermal therapy, and bio sensing. In near infrared and visible parts of the body, due to their anisotropic structure, they are able to get good absorption, thus making them suitable for applications in thermal imaging, and gene delivery.
Non-cytoxicity of gold nanoparticles as well as their high surface area makes them useful in various biological applications as they can be easily modified with regards to various biomarkers as well as targeting molecules. Their customizable optical properties also in conjunction with their compatibility make them ideal for usage in biological applications. Such trends are benefitting the overall gold nanoparticles market growth. The synthesis methods of obtaining these metals include chemical, green method, and physical methods. These methods are in line with the rules and regulations followed while synthesizing other nanoparticles. Among these methods, green method is environmentally friendly, in addition to being non-toxic.
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Wide ranging applications of gold nanoparticles include DNA labelling, cancer therapy, drug delivery, optoelectronics, biology sensing, and photo imaging among others. The shape and size induced unique properties have widened the application portfolio. Ongoing R7D activities are also benefitting the same, thus proving as a catalyst for growing market demand.
Targeted drug delivery, in comparison to traditional drug delivery, minimizes the side effects, in comparison to traditional drug delivery. Gold nanoparticles exhibit exceptional performance in bio-imaging, which makes them useful in targeted drug delivery. Due to their unique binding properties with a variety of other particles such as proteins, thiols, aptamers, disulfides and carboxylic acids, they have found widespread applications in drug deliveries for cancer therapies.
These materials are also used to detect in water the presence of arsenic, mercury, lead and copper. The aggregation of these materials causes color change and this principle is used to prepare sensors for the detection of various metal ions. Noble metals, due to their compatibility and inertness play a key role in the development and proper functioning of biosensors.
North America emerged as the largest gold nanoparticles market in 2017. Prevalent high-tech medical facilities, presence of major industry participants, aging population and high disposable income are some of the key factors contributing to this scenario. The growth of the electronics industry in regions such as Asia pacific are expected to boost the regional demand.
Companies are focusing more on development of innovative products to acquire market share. Recent R&D achievements such as those aimed at developing broad spectrum antiviral medicines are expected to benefit the overall market demand. Companies are developing manufacturing methods which do not require the usage of toxic substances. Major industry participants include NanoBio Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd., Appolo Biolife, Sigma Aldrich, NanoRods LLC, Metalor, Tanaka, BBI Solutions, Cytodiagnostics and Goldsol among others.